Amazon evolution paper

Recovering from a bout of malaria on the remote Indonesian island of Halmahera, the young British biologist came up with an idea that would transform humanity's view of itself: Wallace wrote down his idea and sent it to Charles Darwin, who had been contemplating a similar theory of evolution for more than a decade. Both versions were read to members of the Linnean Society in

Amazon evolution paper

Twitter Facebook Results point to a highly complex picture of arrival, dispersal and expansion. The study involved an analysis of ancient American genomes unearthed in locations spanning from Alaska to Patagonia.

Amazon evolution paper

While there has been much focus on the timing and number of initial migrations into North and South America, less attention has been paid to the subsequent expansion throughout the American continents.

Previous genomic studies have suggested that the first American populations diverged from their Siberian and East Asian ancestors nearly 25, years ago, and subsequently split into distinct North American and South American populations about 10, years later.

However, the expansion of the first Americans remains a contentious topic and has been difficult to understand from analysis of present-day populations. The results reveal a complex picture of population expansion and diversification.

According to Moreno-Mayar et al. Interestingly, the authors identified the presence of a Late Pleistocene about 11, BP population with Australasian ancestry evident only in South America, which left no apparent genetic traces in North America.

In addition, the authors find evidence of a smaller Mesoamerican-related population expansion evident through a geographically widespread admixture of genetic material. The findings include two previously unknown genetic exchanges between North and South America, one of which represents a continent-wide population turnover.


The results suggest that the people who spread the Clovis culture, the first widespread archaeological culture of North America, had a major demographic impact further south than previously appreciated.

The authors analyzed genome-wide data from 49 individuals from Central and South America, some as old as 11, years. Previously, the only genomes that had been reported from this region and that provided sufficient quality data to analyze were less than 1, years old.

By comparing ancient and modern genomes from the Americas and other parts of the globe, the researchers were able to obtain qualitatively new insights into the early history of Central and South America.

The researchers obtained official permits to excavate and conduct analysis on ancient human remains and consulted with local governmental agencies and indigenous communities.

This contrasts with West Eurasia and Africa, where there are few places with such long-standing continuity. California Channel Island-associated ancestry in the Andes The second previously unknown spread of people revealed itself in an analysis showing that ancient Californians from the Channel Islands have a distinctive shared ancestry with groups that became widespread in the southern Peruvian Andes by at least 4, years ago.

The researchers say this is unlikely to reflect population spread specifically from the Channel Islands into South America. Instead, they hypothesize that the connection between these regions is the result of expansions of people that occurred thousands of years earlier, and that such ancestry became more widespread in the Andes after subsequent events within South America.

Amazon evolution paper

Spreads of particular subgroups during these events may be why we detect this ancestry afterward. To learn about the initial movements of people into Central and South America, they say, it would be necessary to obtain ancient DNA from individuals dating to before 11, years ago.

Even for the period between 11, and 3, years ago that this study focused on, the picture is far from complete. The tooth is only the second known remnant of a population of early migrants known as Ancient Beringians.

Combined with previous University of Alaska Fairbanks research, the find indicates that Ancient Beringians remained in Alaska for thousands of years after first migrating across the Bering Land Bridge that connected eastern Asia and Alaska.

That research included genetic analysis of 15 diverse bone samples from sites across North and South America, revealing a broad picture of how the Americas were populated by its earliest peoples.

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