Amino acids bind together to form polypeptide chains, and these polypeptides fold and coil together into specific conformations to form proteins. There are 20 different amino acids, each amino acid consisting of four distinct partners.
Protein and amino acids are among the most common nutritional supplements taken by athletes. This review evaluates the theoretical rationale and potential effects on athletic performance of protein, purported anabolic amino acids, branched-chain amino acids, glutamine, creatine, and hydroxymethylbutyrate HMB.
Two books, 61 research articles, 10 published abstracts, and 19 review articles or book chapters. Dietary supplementation of protein beyond that necessary to maintain nitrogen balance does not provide additional benefits for athletes.
Ingesting carbohydrate with protein prior to or following exercise may reduce catabolism, promote glycogen resynthesis, or promote a more anabolic hormonal environment. Whether employing these strategies during training enhances performance is not yet clear.
There is some evidence from clinical studies that certain amino acids e. Branched-chain amino acids leucine, isoleucine, and valine and glutamine may be involved in exercise-induced central fatigue and immune suppression, but their ergogenic value as supplements is equivocal at present.
Most studies indicate that creatine supplementation may be an effective and safe way to enhance performance of intermittent high-intensity exercise and to enhance adaptations to training. Supplementation with hydroxymethylbutyrate appears to reduce catabolism and increase gains in strength and fat-free mass in untrained individuals initiating training; as yet, limited data are available to decide how it affects training adaptations in athletes.
Of the nutrients reviewed, creatine appears to have the greatest ergogenic potential for athletes involved in intense training. All supplements reviewed here need more evaluation for safety and effects on athletic performance. Amino acids arealso involved in numerous metabolic pathways that affect exercisemetabolism.
Consequently, it has been suggested that athletesinvolved in intense training require additional protein in the dietor that they should supplement their diet with specific amino acids. I review here the rationale and the evidence for the potentialergogenic effect of short-term supplementation with protein and aminoacids and the evidence for the potential anabolic effect oflonger-term use when supplementation is combined with training.
Ideal first with protein, then with the amino acids under thefollowing headings: These additional references arereviewed elsewhere Kreider, ; Kreider, ; Williams et al. Downloadthe complete list as a Word 97 file by clicking on thislink.
Athletes training at high-altitude may need as much as 2. This protein intakeis about 1. On the other hand, ingesting more proteinthan necessary to maintain protein balance during training e.
Thesefindings indicate that athletes typically do not need to supplementtheir normal diets with protein, provided they ingest enough qualityprotein to maintain protein balance.
More recently, there has been interest in determining the effectsof pre- and post-exercise carbohydrate and protein feedings onhormonal responses to exercise Cade et al.
Consequently, ingesting protein and carbohydrate prior toexercise may serve as an anti-catabolic nutritional strategy Carli et al.
Anabolic AminoAcids One of the commonly purported benefits of amino acidsupplementation is that certain amino acids e. For example, intravenous arginine and ornithineinfusion have been used clinically for stimulating growth hormonerelease Carlson et al.
In addition, preliminary clinical studiesindicated that protein 20 to 60 g ; arginine and lysine 1. However, other researchers have not replicatedthese findings, particularly in healthy individuals Lemon, Consequently, the effects of amino acid supplementation ongrowth-hormone release and training adaptations are as yetunclear.
Branched-Chain AminoAcids Researchers have expended a considerable amount of effort onevaluating the effects of supplementation of branched-chain aminoacids BCAAs: There are two primary hypotheses regarding the ergogenicvalue of supplementation with these amino acids. Theoretically, BCAA supplementation during intense training may helpminimize protein degradation and thereby lead to greater gains infat-free mass.
Although several studies support this hypothesis,additional research is necessary to determine the long-term effectsof BCAA supplementation during training on markers of catabolism,body composition, and strength Kreider, Second, the availability of BCAA during exercise has beentheorized to contribute to central fatigue Newsholmeet al.
During endurance exercise, BCAAs are taken up bythe muscles rather than the liver in order to contribute to oxidativemetabolism. The source of BCAAs for muscular oxidative metabolismduring exercise is the plasma BCAA pool, which is replenished throughthe catabolism of whole body proteins during endurance exercise Davis, ; Kreider, ; Newsholme et al.
Free tryptophanand BCAAs compete for entry into the brain via the same amino-acidcarrier Newsholme et al.
Therefore, a decrease in BCAAs in the blood facilitates entry oftryptophan into the brain. Moreover, most tryptophan in the blood isbound to albumin, and the proportion of tryptophan bound to albuminis influenced by the availability of long-chained fatty acids Davis et al.
In endurance exercise free fatty-acidconcentration rises, so the amount of tryptophan bound to albuminfalls, increasing the concentration of free tryptophan in the blood Davis, Collectively, the decline in plasma BCAAs and increase in freetryptophan during prolonged endurance exercise alters the ratio offree tryptophan to BCAAs and increases the entry of tryptophan intothe brain Newsholme et al.
Anincreased concentration of tryptophan in the brain promotes theformation of the neurotransmitter 5-hydroxytryptamine 5-HT. An exercise-induced imbalance in the ratioof free tryptophan to BCAAs has been implicated as a possible causeof acute physiological and psychological fatigue central fatigue.
It has also been hypothesized that chronic elevations in 5-HTconcentration, which may occur in athletes maintaining high-volumetraining, explains some of the reported signs and symptoms of theovertraining syndrome:Popular muscle building supplements, known as branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) are ineffective when taken in isolation, according to new research from the University of Stirling.
The study. Amino acids, as their name indicates, contain both a basic amino group and an acidic carboxyl group.
This difunctionality allows the individual amino acids to join together in long chains by forming peptide bonds: amide bonds between the -NH2 of one amino acid and the -COOH of another.
Article shared by. Mendelian segregation never produces new character but results in only redistribution of genes. Darwin was aware of these sudden changes and called ‘sports’ while Bateson described as ‘discontinuous variation’ and stated that they were of general occurrence.
Amino Acids and How They Relate to Athletics This Essay Amino Acids and How They Relate to Athletics and other 64,+ term papers, college essay examples and free essays are available now on caninariojana.com Autor: review • May 19, • Essay • Words (2 Pages) • Views.
Once the amino acids enter your bloodstream, there’s no way to tell whether they were derived from a bowl of lentils or a steak. They all end up as an amino acid “pool” in your body’s tissues and fluids—a pool that can be tapped into as needed.
Plant-Powered Athletes and What They Eat. Related To: Vegan. All protein foods contain amino acids, the building blocks of protein, though most plant-based sources don’t contain all the.