See Article History Alternative Titles: Lying along important trade routes connecting southern and eastern Asia to Europe and the Middle EastAfghanistan has long been a prize sought by empire builders, and for millennia great armies have attempted to subdue it, leaving traces of their efforts in great monuments now fallen to ruin. In the last quarter of the 20th century, Afghanistan suffered the ruinous effects of civil war greatly exacerbated by a military invasion and occupation by the Soviet Union —
Courtesy of the Pakistan Embassy, Washington, D. It contains a section of the ancient Silk Road and the Khyber Pass, the famous passageway that has brought outside influences into the otherwise isolated subcontinent.
Lofty peaks such as K2 and Nanga Parbatin the Pakistani-administered region of Kashmirpresent a challenging lure to mountain climbers.
Along the Indus River, the artery of the country, the ancient site of Mohenjo-daro marks one of the cradles of civilization. Established as a parliamentary democracy that espoused secular ideas, the country has experienced repeated military coups, and religion—that is to say, adherence to the values of Sunni Islam—has increasingly become a standard by which political leaders are measured.
In various parts of the country, instances of ethnic, religious, and social conflict have flared up from time to time, often rendering those areas virtually ungovernable by the central authorities, and acts of violence against religious minorities have increased.
At the time of partition inas many as 10 million Muslim refugees fled their homes in India and sought refuge in Pakistan—about 8 million in West Pakistan.
Virtually an equal number of Hindus and Sikhs were uprooted from their land and familiar surroundings in what became Pakistan, and they fled to India.
Unlike the earlier migrations, which took centuries to unfold, these chaotic population transfers took hardly one year.
The resulting impact on the life of the subcontinent has reverberated ever since in the rivalries between the two countries, and each has continued to seek a lasting modus vivendi with the other. Pakistan and India have fought four wars, three of which —49,and were over Kashmir.
Since both countries have also possessed nuclear weapons, further heightening tensions between them. Land Pakistan is bounded by Iran to the west, Afghanistan to the northwest and north, China to the northeast, and India to the east and southeast. The coast of the Arabian Sea forms its southern border.
Since the Kashmir region, along the western Himalayashas been disputed, with Pakistan, India, and China each controlling sections of the territory. The remainder of Pakistani-administered Kashmir consists of Gilgit and Baltistan, known collectively as the Northern Areas. Relief and drainage Pakistan is situated at the western end of the great Indo-Gangetic Plain.
Of the total area of the country, about three-fifths consists of rough mountainous terrain and plateaus, and the remaining two-fifths constitutes a wide expanse of level plain.
The land can be divided into five major regions: Within each major division there are further subdivisions, including a number of desert areas. Pakistan The Himalayan and Karakoram ranges The Himalayas, which have long been a physical and cultural divide between South and Central Asiaform the northern rampart of the subcontinent, and their western ranges occupy the entire northern end of Pakistan, extending about miles km into the country.
Spreading over Kashmir and northern Pakistan, the western Himalayan system splits into three distinct ranges, which are, from south to north, the Pir Panjal Rangethe Zaskar Rangeand the Ladakh Range. Farther north is the Karakoram Rangewhich is a separate system adjoining the Himalayas.
This series of ranges varies in elevation from roughly 13, feet 4, metres to higher than 19, feet 6, metres above sea level.
These include such towering peaks as Nanga Parbat 26, feet [8, metres] and K2also called Godwin Austen 28, feet [8, metres]in the Northern Areas.
Several important rivers flow from, or through, the mountains of Kashmir into Pakistan. South of the Pir Panjal is the northwestern extension of the Shiwalik Range there rising to about to feet [ to metres]which extend over the southern part of the Hazara and Murree hills and include the hills surrounding Rawalpindi and neighbouring Islamabad.
The highway, a marvel of modern technology, carries considerable commerce between the two countries but has promoted little cultural exchange.
The northern mountain barrier influences the precipitation pattern in Pakistan by intercepting monsoon rain-bearing winds from the south.Afghanistan is bordered by Iran in the west, Pakistan in the south and east, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, and Tajikistan in the north, and China in the far northeast.
The country is mountainous, with plains in the north and southwest. History of Afghanistan Afghanistan was settled at least 50, years ago. Early cities such as Mundigak and Balkh sprang up around 5, years ago; they likely were affiliated with the Aryan culture of India.
Pakistan: Pakistan, populous and multiethnic country of South Asia.
Having a predominately Indo-Iranian speaking population, Pakistan has historically and culturally been associated with its neighbours Iran, Afghanistan, and India.
Since Pakistan and India achieved independence in , Pakistan has been.
The History Of Afghanistan History Essay. Print Reference this. Disclaimer: It starts with an introduction to the country, focusing on its geography and people.
It discusses its location in the region, its physical features and agricultural potential. It also discusses its economy and the ethnic groups inhabiting the country. Geography. Afghanistan, approximately the size of Texas, is bordered on the north by Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, and Tajikistan, on the extreme northeast by China, .
In , Soviet troops left Afghanistan and the Taliban took control of the capital Kabul. After the September 11, attacks, the United States began searching for Osama bin Laden in Afghanistan and invaded Afghanistan, along with an international coalition to remove the Taliban.