It followed on from the First Industrial Revolution that began in Britain in the late 18th century that then spread throughout Western Europe and North America. It was characterized by the build out of railroadslarge-scale iron and steel production, widespread use of machinery in manufacturing, greatly increased use of steam power, widespread use of the telegraphuse of petroleum and the beginning of electrification. It also was the period during which modern organizational methods for operating large scale businesses over vast areas came into use. The concept was introduced by Patrick GeddesCities in Evolutionbut David Landes ' use of the term in a essay and in The Unbound Prometheus standardized scholarly definitions of the term, which was most intensely promoted by Alfred Chandler —
The industrial revolution began in Britain and then slowly spread across the world over the span of a few centuries.
In addition, some countries never fully industrialized at all, such as numerous countries in Africa and Asia while others, such as Russia, are only partially industrialized.
The following is an overview of countries where the industrial revolution took place: Industrial Revolution in Europe: The industrial revolution began in Great Britain in the late s before spreading to the rest of Europe. The first European countries to be industrialized after England were Belgium, France and the German states.
Spain, Portugal, Austria-Hungary, Italy and the Ottoman Empire started to industrialize very late in the 19th century. Belgium was the second country in Europe in which the industrial revolution took place and the first nation in continental Europe.
In France, industrialization was slower, due to its lack of coal and iron. By the end of the 19th century, the majority of French workers were still employed in non-manufacturing jobs.
When France did fully industrialize, textile and furniture manufacturing became the dominant industries.
In Germany, industrialization was also slow, due to the region being divided into several independent states rather than a unified country, but Germany eventually became a global leader in chemical research in industrial and university labs.
Industrial Revolution in America: The industrial revolution in America began after two textile manufacturers, Samuel Slater and Francis Cabot Lowell, introduced mechanized textile manufacturing to the United States in the late s and early s. During the first industrial revolution, which occurred from between andindustrialization was more prevalent in the northern states while the south remained primarily agrarian.
Although the first industrial revolution began in Great Britain and then spread to the United States, the second industrial revolution, which saw the rise in electricity, petroleum and steel, actually began in the United States and then spread to Europe and the rest of the world.
By the s, the United States surpassed Britain for first place in manufacturing output and by the beginning of the 20th century, per capita incomes in the United States were double that of Germany and France, and 50 percent higher than Britain. The United States is now the largest economy in the world.
Industrial Revolution in India: The industrial revolution came late to India, due to its complicated political and economic relationship with Great Britain. Although India, which was a British colony, dominated the global cotton textile markets in the 18th century, the Indian textile industry took a hit when the industrial revolution began in Great Britain.
The use of steam power in British mills reduced the cost of British cotton by 85 percent, making its textile goods internationally competitive for the first time.
Britain quickly became a leading world exporter of textiles, displacing India in the process. In addition, in order to protect its new textile industry, Great Britain began to restrict textile imports from India and other countries by establishing tariffs and other protective policies.
Great Britain instead began to export its own textiles to India. New colonial laws forced Indian farmers to devote most of their fields to cotton crops, instead of food, which led to widespread famine and poverty in India.
As a result, it took decades before India started adopting modern industrial practices, such as steam power and mechanized spinning and weaving, in its textile manufacturing. Women workers in a booming Bombay textile mill, circa The industrial revolution finally came to India inwhen the first steam-powered cotton mill in Asia opened in Bombay.The industrial revolution began in Britain and then slowly spread across the world over the span of a few centuries.
The first regions of the world to be industrialized were Western Europe, then North America, followed by Eastern Europe and Asia. In addition, some countries never fully industrialized at all, such as numerous countries in Africa .
The Second Industrial Revolution fueled the Gilded Age, a period of great extremes: great wealth and widespread poverty, great expansion and deep depression, new .
Belgium was the second country in Europe in which the industrial revolution took place and the first nation in continental Europe. Belgium became the world’s second industrial power, after Britain. In France, industrialization was slower, due to its lack of coal and iron.
The second Industrial Revolution lasted from the midth century until the early 20th century and took place in Britain, continental Europe, North America, and Japan.
|Industrial Revolution in Europe:||The Industrial Revolution made our lives easier, but did it make them better? The main features involved in the Industrial Revolution were technological, socioeconomic, and cultural.|
|Outline of the history of Western civilization - Wikipedia||Skellig Michael, also known as Great Skellig, is a steep rocky island in the Atlantic Ocean about Clovis I — Clovis or Chlodowech was the first King of the Franks to unite all the Frankish tribes under one ruler, changing the leadership from a group of royal chieftains, to rule by kings, ensuring that the kingship was held by his heirs.|
|Second Industrial Revolution - Wikipedia||Britain's Industrial Revolution Summary Although Western Europe had long had the basic trappings of capitalism private property, wealth accumulation, contractsthe Industrial Revolution fueled the creation of a truly modern capitalist system.|
|ADVERTISEMENT||The West in the Age of Industrialization and Imperialism As far-reaching as the transformation of Western civilization since the Renaissance had been, no one around could have predicted the even more profound changes that would occur in the nineteenth century.|
Later in the 20th century, the second Industrial Revolution spread to other parts of the world. Industrial Revolution The Industrial Revolution began in the 18th century, when agricultural societies became more industrialized and urban.
The transcontinental railroad, the cotton gin, electricity and other inventions permanently changed society.
Video: The Second Industrial Revolution: Timeline & Inventions The Second Industrial Revolution was another great leap forward in technology and society. New innovations in steel production, petroleum and electricity led to the introduction of .