On many occasions during Q and A following a public lecture, in media interviews, or in private conversations with interested non-specialists during the past decade, a surprising array of people have confidently summarized their perspective with a declarative sentence or rhetorical question: Having been inundated with dramatic media images, fiery rhetoric and gruesome acts by violent extremists claiming inspiration from Islam, revolutionary upheaval in Egypt and other countriesand non-stop punditry, it is not too surprising to find many Americans resorting to a shorthand way—the Muslim Brotherhood—of summarizing what in the world is going on and why. But such generalizations are not only inaccurate, they are simplistic and dangerously misleading when impacting public policy. Without question, many things are happening simultaneously at the intersection of religion and politics in various Muslim-majority countries today.
Roosevelt needed to make the case that the Nazi threat to America was real. She belongs to every man, woman and child in this nation But his submarines and raiders prove otherwise.
The map was a forgery. Prime Minister Winston Churchill believed that the Americans would eventually get around to doing the right thing; they just needed a prod in the right direction—a prod in which the ends justified the means.
The Zimmermann Telegram, intercepted and decrypted by British codebreakers, offered a secret deal in which the Germans promised to return New Mexico, Arizona and Texas to Mexico if the latter would declare war on the United States in the event that Washington declared war on Germany.
In that instance, the British artfully used the telegram, authored by German foreign minister Arthur Zimmermann, to overcome characteristic American concern about foreign entanglements.
It made the front page on March 1, Notably, many Americans suspected the dark arts at play, assessing the telegram as a forgery. By the next month, America was at war. The Zimmermann Telegram was but one of several factors, including German unrestricted submarine warfare, which led to American entry into World War I.
The Americans tipped the balance in favor of the Entente powers and Germany was forced to sign the punitive Treaty of Versailles inbut such a peace could not last, and exactly two decades later the European powers were again at war. Still, the lost tonnage projections for transatlantic shipping were unsustainable.
Argumentation mursi tribe issues supplies sent by America were critical, but if Britain was going to do more than lose slowly, America needed to go all in.
But where was the next Zimmermann telegram to help this president lead his country to war? It seemed that, although Britain had affixed keys to every kite it had, lighting was not going to strike twice, but just maybe, this time they could put lightning in a bottle for FDR.
Donovan, acting as coordinator of information, the forerunner of the wartime Office of Strategic Services, itself subsequently reassembled in as the Central Intelligence Agency. Donovan and Stephenson were birds of a feather. Self-made wealthy men, internationalist in outlook, and both combat heroes of World War I.
It was in this context that Little Bill handed the fake map amongst other forgeries to Big Bill, who presented it to FDR as a cat brings a mouse to its master, perhaps, reminiscent of contemporary news media, not lingering over questions of authenticity because it was a scoop that Donovan had over his rivals in the military branches and J.
Edgar Hoover at the FBI. Assistant Secretary of State Adolf Berle, a man for who his intelligence portfolio was a bothersome sideshow, was on the right track with his skepticism about the British intelligence that Donovan was feeding to Roosevelt.
He had concerns regarding reliability and veracity of the volumes of British intelligence that was finding its way to the Oval Office. I think we have to be a little on our guard against false scares. Thus, although the British put forward the fake news, Roosevelt was a willing political vessel for it.
Several commentators have observed that fake news is not a fraud perpetrated on the unsuspecting, but rather willful belief. A shrewd political operator, Roosevelt was no novice to narrative shaping, but was likely willing to suspend disbelief for his policy goals. Indeed, the mud of deception often slides into self-deception.
Information alchemy is about weaving straw into golden political outcomes. Several commentators have suggested that, during the presidential election, Russian president Vladimir Putin sought to engender a general crisis of civic confidence in the American electoral system. The British needed a political—and by extension military—outcome and they assessed that the best way to do this was through bespoke disinformation.
Media outlets are trying to outcompete each other to earn their reputational halo. Indeed, the fall comes hardest when betrayed by trusted friends, and whom we admire.
CIA has matured immeasurably from the heady and freewheeling days of the OSS, partly through the progression of intelligence officers from glorious amateurs to seasoned professionals, and partly in response to lessons learned from mistakes.
Professional intelligence analysts are put through a rigorous analytical training pipeline that includes how to structure analysis, how to weigh sources, and how to consider competing hypotheses.
Government and may have intended to influence as well as inform. Not everyone needs to be professionally trained as an intelligence officer or historian to wade through sources, but Hugh Trevor-Roper was both.
To apply his craft to approaching a primary source, he listed three questions that should be asked about every document: Was the author in a position to know what he was writing about? And, why does this document exist? Answers to these questions are the handmaidens of trusting information and halting the malign influence of fake news.Introduction On December 1, , Egyptian President Muhammad Mursi announced that Egypt's new constitution would be put to referendum on December The previous report in this series reviewed Egypt's past constitutions and the events surrounding the establishment of the Constituent Assembly, and presented the articles of the draft .
Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt. by Dia'a Rashwan. This chapter aims at reviewing and analyzing activities and ideas of the Muslim Brotherhood movement, as an example of a socially oriented political movement with a political platform.
The term phyletism from phyli: race or tribe was coined at the Holy and Great pan-Orthodox pan-Orthodox Synod that met in Istanbul (formerly Constantinople) in The meeting was prompted by the creation of a separate bishopric by the Bulgarian community of Istanbul for parishes only open to Bulgarians.
Jan 13, · Mursi language topic. Mursi (also Dama, Merdu, Meritu, Murzi, Murzu) is a Nilo-Saharan Eastern Sudanic language spoken by the Mursi people, in the central Omo region of southwest Ethiopia.
The History of Fake News. Why can’t America reliably separate out fact, falsehood, opinion and reasoned analysis? David V. GIOE. It was a clear autumn day in Washington, DC on October 27, , when President Franklin Roosevelt delivered his Navy Day speech to the American people.
Halloween was later that week, but Adolf Hitler and . The giraffe woman, Kayan lahwi tribe Kayan lahwi is one of the group of Kayan tribe living in burma and southern thailand near burma thailand border,they are ethnic minority in Burma and often are.
She looks so authoritative because she is .