Juvenile justice and delinquency prevention essay

View Full Essay Words: All the boys were from the similar poor backgrounds and the results of the study helped identify a clear and conclusive pattern. Professor Laub found that low levels of parental supervision, harsh discipline and weak parental attachment were high risk factors for juvenile delinquency and adult criminal behavior. The study also reported that juvenile criminals were less likely to complete school, more likely to be jobless and likely to experience divorce and separation as adults.

Juvenile justice and delinquency prevention essay

Use an editor to spell check essay. Etimologically, the term 'delinquency' has been derived from the Latin word delinquer which means 'to omit'.

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The Romans used the term to refer to the failure of a person to perform the assigned task or duty. It was William Coxson who inused the term 'delinquent' to describe a person found guilty of customary offence.

The word also found place in Shakespearean famous play 'Macbeth' in In simpler words it may be said that delinquency is a form of behavior or rather misbehavior or deviation from the generally accepted norms of conduct in the society.

However, penologists have interpreted the word "juvenile delinquency" differently. Generally speaking, the term refers to a large variety of disapproved behaviors of children and adolescents which the society does not approve of, and for which some kind of admonition, punishment or corrective measure is justified in the public interest.

Thus, the term has a very extensive meaning and includes rebellious and hostile behavior of children and their attitude of indifference towards society.

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Certain other acts such as begging, truancy, vagrancy, obscenity, loitering, pilfering, drinking, gambling etc. It may therefore, be inferred that a juvenile is an adolescent person between childhood and manhood or womanhood, as the case may be, who indulges in some kind of anti-social behavior, which if not checked, may turn him into a potential offender.

Expressing his view on juvenile delinquency, Albert Cohen observed that the only possible definition of delinquency is one that relates to the behavior in question to some set of rules.

The rules themselves are a heterogeneous collection of regulations, some common to all communities and others only to be found in one or two. Caldwell prefers to leave the term vague and includes within it all acts of children which tend them to be pooled indiscriminately as wards of the State.

Juvenile justice and delinquency prevention essay

Ruth Shonle Cavan USA observed that "irrespective of legal definition, a child might be regarded as delinquent when his anti-social conduct inflicts suffering upon others or when his family finds him difficult to control and he becomes a serious concern of the community.

The idea is that there should be certainty about acts which are prescribed as crimes. For example, a child or an adolescent who is growing up in idleness or wanders about the street in late night without any purpose or is habitually disobedient or uncontrolled, is deemed to be a delinquent under certain statutes.

This is obviously not in strict accordance with the definition of crime but such conducts are still treated as delinquent acts under the statutes relating to juveniles because they are created not to punish them but to keep them away from such indecent and lascivious conducts which are detrimental to the development of their personality.

In a broad generic sense, juvenile delinquency refers to "a variety of anti-social behavior of a child and is defined somewhat differently by different societies, though a common converging tendency may be noted in those forms, namely, socially unacceptable tendency of the child at any given time.

For example, smoking, drinking or absenting oneself from home may be a permissible conduct for adults but the same is treated as a delinquent act, if committed by children or adolescents.

It is sometimes argued that delinquency is not a criminal status. But this view has been repelled by Paul W. Tappen who asserts that euphemistic terminology such as "hearing" instead of "trial", or "disposition" instead of "sentence" should not conceal from us the fact that nature of entire procedure may be little different from that of a criminal court, but it may be even worse, for it may abandon the fundamentals of justice in the guise of promoting superior justice.

The question of exact definition of juvenile delinquency has always remained a debatable issue among criminologists. It has been engaging the attention of United Nations for quite some time.

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The Second United Nations Congress on the Prevention of Crime and the Treatment of Offenders held in August, in London, took up the problem of juvenile delinquency, and the consensus was that the issue of definition need not be stretched too far and the meaning of the term 'juvenile delinquency' be restricted to all violations of criminal law and maladjusted behaviors of minors which are disapproved by society.

The General Assembly of the United Nations adopted the Convention on Rights of the Child on 20th November, which prescribed a set of standard to be adhered to by all the State parties in securing the best interest of the child. The Convention also emphasized on social reintegration of child victims, to the extent possible, without resorting to judicial proceedings.

The Government of India ratified the Convention on 11th December, and therefore, it became expedient to re-enact the Juvenile Justice Act, to meet the requirements of the standard prescribed by the Convention on the Right of the Child and all other international instruments.

In the Juvenile Justice Care and Protection of Children Act,the term 'delinquent juvenile' used in the earlier Juvenile Justice Act, has been substituted by the words 'juvenile in conflict with law. It is therefore, obvious that every conduct prohibited by statute is not to be taken as an act of delinquency.


Instead, the conduct which tends to constitute an offence, not only from the legal standpoint but also from the angle of prevalent social norms and values shall be included within the meaning of the term 'delinquency'. For example, smoking, begging, vagrancy, etc.Introduction: Juvenile delinquency is an ever growing issue in the United States, according to the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, “In , there were 3, arrests for every , youths ages 10 through 17 in the United States” (OJJDP, ).

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Typically, juvenile delinquency follows a trajectory similar to that of normal adolescent development. directory provides up-to-date information for effective programs that address risk and protective factors related to juvenile justice and delinquency prevention.

Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act Essay Introduction The Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act (JJDPA) is the principal federal program through which the federal government sets standards for juvenile justice systems at the state and local levels.

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