Steven Graham, Karen R. Harris, and Lynn Larsen This paper presents six principles designed to prevent writing difficulties as well as to build writing skills:
Teaching reading IS rocket science. Reading is a complicated process, which is why so many children struggle to become strong readers. The process of learning to read can be particularly challenging for English language learners ELLsespecially if they have little or no formal schooling and they have not learned to read in their native language.
|Teaching materials: using literature in the EFL/ ESL classroom | Onestopenglish||April 26, at 2: However, learning to read proficiently is an essential precursor to becoming literate in the broader sense.|
|Teaching English-Language Learners: What Does the Research Say? | Colorín Colorado||Literacy, for all readers, is pretty much the same.|
This report is a study of research-based best practices in reading instruction and it focuses on the following five instructional areas: Each of these topics is explored below, and each section includes: Phonemic Awareness and English Language Learners Phonemic awareness is one of the best predictors of how well children will learn to read during the first two years of school instruction.
Sometimes it is nearly impossible, however, for speakers of a second language to "hear" and say sounds in the language they are learning. Perhaps you have had a student who simply could not master a particular sound in English.
Chances are good that that sound was not a part of the student's native language, and so the student didn't have the ability to produce that sound. I experienced this when learning Sinhala in the Peace Corps.
There was a "th" sound that seemed to be a combination "d" and "th," and no matter how hard I tried, I could not hear or produce the sound correctly. I knew which words it belonged in, but I couldn't say it. The native Sinhala speakers struggled to make sense of my pronunciation.
ELLs may have similar difficulties with sounds that are not a part of their native language. Challenges and Strategies What: The ability to hear and manipulate the different sounds in our language. Phonemic awareness is the foundation for spelling and word recognition skills.
Challenges for ELLs Sound recognition and production Students may not be able to "hear" or produce a new sound in a second language. Students who cannot hear and work with the phonemes of spoken words will have a difficult time learning how to relate these phonemes to letters when they see them in written words.
Strategies for ELLs Model production of the sound Spend a few minutes at the beginning of class or in small groups demonstrating and reinforcing the correct production of the sound. Help beginning readers learn to identify sounds in short words Have students practice identifying the sounds in the beginning, middle, and end of these words.
You may wish to use words that begin with a consonant, have a short vowel, and end in a consonant CVC words such as mat, top, and bus. One very effective method is having students match pictures of words that have the same beginning, middle, or ending sound.
Be careful to use only words that students know in English! Phonics and English Language Learners Phonics instruction aims to help new readers understand that there are systematic and predictable relationships between written letters and spoken sounds.
Students will benefit from learning and practicing sounds and symbols, including blended combinations. This is fairly common in the primary grades and ELLs may pick up the code very quickly and appear to be fairly proficient readers.
However, it's important to remember that knowledge of phonics and decoding does not ensure good comprehension. The relationship between a sound and its corresponding written letter.
Reading development is dependent on the understanding that letters and letter patterns represent the sounds of spoken language. Challenges for ELLs Limited literacy skills in native language Many educators believe that students only need to learn to read once.
Once the concept of matching a symbol with a sound has been learned, it can be applied to new languages. Students who have learned to read in their native language have a distinct advantage because they were able to learn this concept with familiar sounds and words.
Unfamiliar vocabulary words It is difficult for students to distinguish phonetic components in new vocabulary words.
Preteaching vocabulary is an important part of good phonics instruction with ELLs so that students aren't trying to figure out new vocabulary items out of context.
Strategies for ELLs Using literature and content material, you can introduce and reinforce:Literature has been a subject of study in many countries at a secondary or tertiary level, but until recently has not been given much emphasis in the EFL/ESL classroom. Language pedagogy [definition needed] may take place as a general school subject, in a specialized language school, or out of school with a rich selection of proprietary methods online and in books, CDs and DVDs.
There are many methods of teaching languages. Some have fallen into relative obscurity and others are widely used; still others have a small following, but offer useful insights.
Resources to help struggling readers build phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, and comprehension skills. Online course on teaching reading, classroom strategies, in-classroom video, parent reading tips, interviews with children's book authors, recommended children's books, and more.
The aim of Teaching English to Young Learners (TEYL) is to provide you with knowledge and skills for teaching English as a second or foreign language to young learners. English as a second or foreign language is the use of English by speakers with different native caninariojana.comge education for people learning English may be known as English as a second language (ESL), English as a foreign language (EFL), English as an additional language (EAL), or English for speakers of other languages (ESOL).The aspect in which ESL is taught is called teaching .
Consider some excellent lesson models for teaching vocabulary, explaining idioms, fostering word consciousness, instruction for English Language Learners, and mnemonic strategies.