Transformation monoid Suppose one has two or more functions f:
The news and business periodicals are peppered with stories of executives flying in private jets to ask for government handouts, taking large bonuses from employers who took billions in bailout money, and instigating organization-wide pay cuts and benefit rollbacks while keeping themselves immune from such changes.
Many accounts describe Cassano as a quintessential arrogant leader. Former coworkers report that in stark contrast to his predecessors, Cassano had penchants for yelling, cursing, bad-mouthing others, and belittling colleagues, as well as little tolerance for opposing viewpoints.
He has also been described as having had an obsession with profits, particularly as they related to the lucrative credit-default swap contracts that eventually brought the entire company down Dennis, ; Taibbi, However, despite the fact that it was the practices he sanctioned that led AIG to be regarded as one of the most notable examples of excess associated with Wall Street, Cassano remains unapologetic about his role and blames others for the crisis Nasiripour, Anecdotal evidence suggests that interactions with arrogant individuals can be uncomfortable and that this effect is amplified when the arrogant individuals occupy positions of authority in organizations.
Many jobs require continuous interaction between employees and their supervisors, effectively limiting the ability to avoid abuse by an arrogant boss. Managers typically have power over work assignments, promotion opportunities, and performance reviews.
This can place subordinates of arrogant managers between a proverbial rock and hard place. The effects of arrogance are not limited to the victims of such behaviors. Rather, arrogance can cause problems for the arrogant leader as well.
Based on the coverage in the popular press, it appears that arrogance is related to numerous undesirable organizational outcomes. This paper clarifies current theoretical conceptualizations of arrogance, reviews recent research investigating arrogance in the workplace, and provides practical recommendations for dealing with arrogant employees.
The persona arrogant individuals attempt to project is one of omnipotence and invincibility. Through actions associated with this inflated sense of entitlement and superiority, arrogant employees often impede effective organizational functioning Johnson et al.
For example, having an exaggerated sense of superiority reduces feedback-seeking behaviors and causes arrogant managers to discount diagnostic information in their work environment. Arrogant managers are therefore more likely to pursue failing courses of action that could otherwise have been prevented.
Arrogant behavior can be an especially challenging problem to deal with due to the fact that arrogant individuals consider their own behavior acceptable and thus do not monitor their own actions when interacting with others. Although arrogance is conceptually related to personality characteristics like narcissism, hubris, and confidence, there are important distinctions that set arrogance apart from these other traits.
Narcissism or self-love involves fantasies of self-grandeur and excessive self-admiration that can occur in the absence of others. Arrogance, on the other hand, is manifested in interpersonal contexts by disparaging others.
Similarly, hubris is also self-focused and lacks the interpersonal nature of arrogance. The distinction between arrogance and confidence is twofold. It first boils down to whether the opinion the individual claims to hold is based in reality and second to how well espoused beliefs represent actual beliefs.
Despite the apparent confidence of those engaging in arrogant behavior, research suggests that it is actually a defensive display occurring partially in response to low self-confidence Johnson et al. Thus, performance claims by confident individuals are based in reality, but those of arrogant individuals are not.
As will be discussed, it is noteworthy that arrogant behavior is typically not associated with actual superior performance or knowledge.
Rather, it seems to be defensive compensation for shortcomings Bauer et al. In the following section we will elaborate on the development and validation of the Workplace Arrogance Scales WARSa measure that has allowed for more efficient and reliable examination of arrogance in the workplace.
Thanks in part to this measure, empirical evidence regarding the effects of workplace arrogance has begun to emerge. As will be discussed, recent studies utilizing this measure indicate that workplace arrogance predicts important organizational outcomes. Research on Arrogance Russ Johnson, Stan Silverman, and colleagues dedicated 4 years of research to answering important questions about the nature and consequences of arrogant behavior in the workplace Bauer et al.
The product of this research program was the Workplace Arrogance Scale WARSas well as considerable increases in our understanding of the effects of workplace arrogance. During these sessions, employees were asked to think about someone at work who behaved arrogantly and to describe the behaviors of that person.
Using the specific behavioral examples garnered from these queries, items reflecting arrogant behaviors were written. The item pool was then refined via an iterative process whereby subject-matter experts reviewed and edited the items until their meaning was clear and wording was satisfactory.
After this, the survey was administered to a new group of employees in order to examine the validity and refine the scale Johnson et al. The measure holds its factor structure across part- and full-time employees, across subordinates and managers, and across self- and other ratings.
Importantly, responses on the measure are not strongly related to social desirability Bauer et al. Although lower rates of agreement have been noted between supervisor and direct report ratings of arrogance, this is likely due to impression management on the part of the arrogant individual e.
As expected, high scores on the WARS are associated with high social dominance and trait anger, as well as with several narcissistic tendencies e. Conversely, high levels of arrogance are associated with low humility and Agreeableness.
Of most interest, though, are relationships of arrogance with work-related outcomes. To date, three job performance criteria have been examined:Award winning online glossary of computer, telephony and electronics terms beginning with letter F.
Calculating the percent composition of compounds tutorial with worked examples for chemistry students.
Answer to write a formula for (f o g o h)(x) where f(x)=x+1 ; g(x)=5x ; h(x)=2+x %(1). Copywriting formulas make it dead-simple to write anything. Read & understand + models for great advertising headlines, tweets, pages, posts & more.
Subsitute this value, n = 2, back into the general molecular formula C n H 2n to get the molecular formula of this compound. So the molecular formula for the compound is: C (1 × 2) H (2 × 2) which is C 2 H 4. There are many compounds that can have the empirical formula CH 2 and therefore a molecular formula of the form C n H 2n..
Examples include. Germany uses a 6-point grading scale (GPA) to evaluate the performance of school children. Grades vary from 1 (excellent, sehr gut) to 6 (insufficient, ungenügend).In the final classes of German Gymnasium schools that prepare for university studies, a point system is used with 15 points being the best grade and 0 points the worst.
The percentage causes the grade can vary from teacher to teacher.